The political structure of Vietnam is represented by a single party republic framework, the President is the head of the state and the Prime Minister is the head of the government. Both the President and Prime Minister of Vietnam exercises the executive powers. The legislative power is exercised by the National Assembly of Vietnam. The Judiciary is independent of the executive.
The National Assembly shall decide the fundamental domestic and foreign policies, the socio-economic tasks, the country’s national – defenses and security issues, the essential principles governing the organization and activity of the State machinery, the social relations and the activities of the citizen.
The Government is the executive organ of the National Assembly, the highest organ of state administration of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. It shall carry out overall management of the work for the fulfillment of the political, economic, cultural, social, national – defense, security and external duties of the State.
Ministries are responsible for the execution of state power in the certain industry or sector. People’s Committee (province, district, and commune) governs management affairs within its administrative location, manages, directs, operates daily activities of local state bodies and executes policies of the relevant People’s Council and higher state bodies.
The country goes through a political transition every five years. The 12th National Congress of the Communist Party, held in January 2016, defined the political and development orientations for Vietnam for 2016–20 and selected a new leadership for the party, state, and government. A general election took place in May 2016 and the new National Assembly reconfirmed the new state president, prime minister, and cabinet members in July 2016.